동인천콜걸キ출장부르는법♦동인천안마방 엄마〖동인천천안역 근처 모텔〗╏【동인천안마방 청룡열차】╬동인천진주시 안마방☈동인천트랜스젠더 안마방θ동인천가산디지털단지역 안마방☢동인천속초 여관∴동인천안마방 전화번호

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

서울출장샵
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

동인천콜걸⇥출장부르는법◁동인천안마방 엄마〖동인천안마방 할머니〗☼【동인천안마방 지명녀】⇔동인천여고생 마사지⇁동인천이하루 마사지┐동인천경마 시간♂동인천영통 안마방☼동인천폼롤러 마사지

The governments of more than 190 nations 평창마사지 팁 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

동인천콜걸▪출장부르는법ホ동인천안마방 엄마〖동인천마사지 ssul〗ω【동인천마사지 대딸】⇠동인천사당♐동인천강서 마사지↩동인천테크노폴리스 마사지◘동인천서귀포 안마방▥동인천성인 마사지

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

동인천콜걸☎24시출장샵┐동인천안마방 엄마〖동인천장한평 안마방〗↰【동인천안마방 얼마냐】♮동인천상주 안마방▒동인천셀프 어깨 마사지┅동인천조건 출장»동인천사상 마사지ξ동인천출장샵안내

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 카지노사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

동인천콜걸✡예약◣동인천안마방 엄마〖동인천두정동 마사지〗☪【동인천영등포구청 안마방】┬동인천천안 유흥↿동인천안마방 69⇟동인천오피스 방0동인천종아리 마사지┃동인천목 마사지

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 전주콜걸강추 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

동인천콜걸┳예약♩동인천안마방 엄마〖동인천홍대 마사지〗◦【동인천모텔 출장안마】☆동인천조건 카페◈동인천마사지 테라피☼동인천후쿠오카 마사지❈동인천분당 안마방✯동인천청도 마사지

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 부산출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

동인천콜걸동인천아가씨 출장

  • 진안어깨 마사지
  • 동인천스타 안마방
  • 동인천콜걸
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    동인천콜걸▷예약⇣동인천안마방 엄마〖동인천마사지 1인샵〗▒【동인천아주동 마사지】⚘동인천전기 마사지♭동인천금정역 안마방✒동인천운서동 안마방⇦동인천캄보디아 마사지►동인천계양구 안마방

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 아산호텔식 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 원주출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    군산출장샵
    보은검단사거리 안마방 카지노사이트 구례안마방 런베스트
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 제주출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    동인천콜걸┗출장부르는법⊙동인천안마방 엄마〖동인천해운대 아가씨〗┛【동인천일본 마사지 섹스】»동인천옆광대 마사지↳동인천대전 커플 마사지ღ동인천인천공항 마사지ξ동인천대구 타이 마사지♣동인천국 안마방 초이스

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 동두천출장여대생 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    동인천콜걸♟출장부르는법★동인천안마방 엄마〖동인천철구 마사지〗➸【동인천관자놀이 마사지】┓동인천봉천 안마방✡동인천겨드랑이 마사지◇동인천부산 여관 가격♪동인천대산 마사지●동인천안마방 숙박

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 카지노사이트 .

    합천구래동 마사지
    김제미시출장안마 대구출장안마 아산엘림 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    동인천콜걸❣24시출장샵♛동인천안마방 엄마〖동인천김해 안마방〗❀【동인천조건 만남 카톡】➷동인천외국인 안마방╮동인천코 마사지◑동인천여자 부르는 가격☣동인천제주 마사지χ동인천동탄 마사지 후기

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 원주출장안마 .

    동인천콜걸♛예약금없는출장샵ト동인천안마방 엄마〖동인천파타야 마사지〗♀【동인천대전 황궁 마사지】┒동인천범계 마사지◕동인천정액 마사지♠동인천인천 안마방 후기⇛동인천이영학 안마방▨동인천마사지 강좌

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 창원출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 천안마사지 구인 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    동인천콜걸✎예약χ동인천안마방 엄마〖동인천진영 안마방〗♫【동인천신촌 마사지】⇛동인천국노╋동인천성서 안마방큐동인천오류동 안마방╯동인천안마☼동인천호텔식 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    동인천콜걸╕24시출장샵◑동인천안마방 엄마〖동인천안마방 엄마〗✚【동인천안마방 스텝】☝동인천광주 대딸방♝동인천정왕동 마사지╮동인천다이소 마사지↨동인천출장시┠동인천부산 해운대 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 무주출장서비스 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 포항출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 카지노사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 상주24시간 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 카지노사이트 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    동인천콜걸▀24시출장샵☏동인천안마방 엄마〖동인천마사지 사진〗☼【동인천모텔출장마사지샵】↤동인천울산 안마방ヒ동인천출장마사지샵ト동인천안마방 카드결제♯동인천최음제 마사지▣동인천강남 안마방

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 원주출장안마 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 카지노사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    동인천콜걸ス예약╆동인천안마방 엄마〖동인천쥬니공주 안마방〗╈【동인천다방 콜】╚동인천안마방 초보╈동인천남양주 마사지♡동인천성내동 안마방☼동인천안마방 카드결제♠동인천광교 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    순창천안역 여관
    부산출장안마 인천용현동 마사지 서울출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    동인천콜걸キ예약금없는출장샵テ동인천안마방 엄마〖동인천안마방 여자친구〗⇡【동인천스포츠 마사지 자격증】◦동인천커플 마사지 후기♠동인천오산 안마방⊥동인천마사지 ssul↕동인천부천 대딸방♀동인천장한평 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.동인천콜걸동인천선릉 마사지✡동인천중리동 안마방◄【동인천오류동 마사지】동인천양배추 안마방▫동인천안마방 입문▌동인천마사지 카페✚동인천마사지 야동▶군산출장샵예약동인천광진구 안마방┆동인천출장마사wl↹〔동인천안마방 한국야동〕동인천승모근 마사지⇜동인천신설동 안마방↺동인천안마방 할머니➳동인천순천 타이 마사지ρ동인천콜걸인제대구 마사지 추천동인천제주시 연동 마사지☪동인천마사지 도구○《동인천이수역 마사지》동인천다이소 마사지¤동인천오산 마사지⇚동인천대전 모텔 가격コ동인천고딩 안마방╛동인천출장맛사지•동인천출장가격☾〖동인천안마방 카운터〗동인천의정부 여관◈동인천새로운 안마방 아가씨 토렌트↗동인천청주 용암동 안마방┗동인천출장태국마사지♐동인천생리통 마사지☑동인천안마방 짜파게티╏(동인천심장 마사지)동인천역출장안마☊동인천군산 터미널 모텔♨동인천종아리 마사지 기계ヒ동인천해피 출장┕동인천조건 만남 카톡♨동인천동대구역 모텔✖[동인천발안 모텔]동인천마사지 앱U동인천햄스터 마사지»동인천sod 마사지║동인천안마방 비비기▄출장부르는법논산안마방 경험예약금없는출장샵동인천거제 옥포 안마방☺동인천안마방 가는 법♀ ﹝동인천태국 마사지 후기﹞동인천출장만남╍동인천안마방 알바 단속カ동인천창녕 마사지═동인천시흥동 안마방⇜동인천콜걸동인천콜걸대구출장샵동인천실제 일본 안마방동인천안마방 짜파게티동인천스웨디시 마사지 정의동인천아로마 마사지 팬티동인천콜걸동인천코코넛오일 마사지→동인천영등포 마사지▩〖동인천텔레그램 야동〗동인천천안 만남┷동인천스포츠 마사지 자격증⇞동인천울산 동구 마사지⇞동인천베트남 마사지 가격✓봉화익산 모텔 추천

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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